Below is a list of flowers from the game, where to obtain them and how much they sell for. Flowers have several uses in the game, in addition to selling them for profit.
Note that Dandelion and Daffodil are not listed here because they are "Forage" in the game, and not "Flowers."
Note also that Crocus and Sweet Pea are not affected by the Tiller Profession bonus because they do not count as crops, despite the fact that they can be grown from Wild Seeds.
Although each flower planted has an equally random chance of being one of a specific number of colors, flowers planted in groups often form discernable patterns.